How short a barrel ? I've pretty much settled on 180's . Seems to be the go to bullet weight for the 10 for most uses . Sig has some decent ammo out that shoot real 10mm velocity. Underwood sells some interesting stuff also . I've used both brands out.of 5 and 6 inch guns with good results.
I'm wondering about a lighter bullet . I think it's the 125 gr. .357mag that's suppose to be the ultimate fight stopper . Federal lists their 125 at 1450 fps and 584 ft.lbs. at the muzzle . Underwood lists a 135 10mm at 1600fps and 767 ft.lbs. . Personal defense maybe it's the light bullet you need . Not sure what they used for barrel length.
I'd think any 10mm load will perform well out of a 4" barrel. Velocity loss wouldn't be tremendous, compared to the 5" test barrel (used in the following link), but without a chrony, I'm merely guessing. Top velocity isn't necessarily the end all of performance.
Magtech 180g FMJ is rated at 1230 fps, but no barrel length is listed. This ammo is $14.99 at TSUSA.
Although I haven't done much testing with the Berry's Hybrid HPs in 10mm, they have worked well in .45 ACP. Pictured below is one recovered from a one gallon milk jug filled with water (.45 ACP, 185g):
Dont know about pistols but revolvers back in the day 4 and 6 inch were the norm. My favorite revolver was a model 19 with a 4 inch barrel. Kinda interested in the 610 so a little range report or any experience with one would be a good read