Help me ID this bit of ammo

Agnotology

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Hornady H, rimfire. .22 LR for comparison
 

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Without knowing the dimensions of the cartridge, it appears to be a .44 Rimfire aka .44 Henry.

 
Just measuring by eyeball, I do not think the round in the original post is .44 Henry. The .44 Henry round is very short and the case length is only about twice the bullet diameter. This short length is ideal for maximizing capacity in a tube fed rifle.

The round in the OP is longer, and also appears to be slightly tapered, where the Henry case is pretty much straight walled. Though the taper might be an illusion of the photograph.

With that said, the stamping does look very similar, so I don't know what that round is.

Followup. I did some googling, and there was a round called .44 long rimfire that was briefly used in some Colt revolvers in the late 1870's.
There is a picture of it here:


That round still looks different, but closer. I think we would need accurate measurements on diameter and case length to make a better assessment.

The primary period for large bore rimfires was about 1860 to 1880, and that was also a period of major firearms development. I think there were a variety of firearms and cartridges that died out quickly. So that round might be anything widely known.
 
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